Monday, May 16, 2011

Kinds of Coffee

Coffee trees grow in tropical regions, at an altitudes of 2,000 to 6,000 feet above sea level. Seeds are planted in nurseries or directly in the groves where the trees will grow. Coffee is a member of the madder family. It grows to about 10 to 15 feet high, but is often kept pruned to a height of 6 to 7 feet so that berries, can be harvested easily. Coffee trees begin to bear fruit when they are about 3 to 5 years old. They live for 20 to 30 years. Coffee leaves is dark green and the flower is white. When ripe the coffee berry is blackish red with yellow pulp. It contains two seeds, or beans, that are flat on one side and rounded on the other. The flat surfaces face each other. Some countries have two coffee crops each year .
Coffee is prone to fungus diseases called coffee rust. The rust attacks the leaves that weakens the plants to such extent that they can no longer produce berries. Coffee rust can be controlled by planting resistant varieties and spraying with fungicides, but outbreaks can severely reduce the coffee harvest. Some countries have two coffee crops each year. Each tree yields approximately 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of berries. These berries produce about one pound of green coffee, or slightly less than a pound of roasted coffee.
Coffee Varieties : coffee has different varieties and each with varying size and colors.
Arabica - is the most widely grown
Mocha - is a variety grown in southern Arabia  
Java - is grown on the island of Java
Rio and Santos - are Brazilian varieties

 Colombian - from Colombia
Harvesting and Processing of Coffee Bean
Coffee berries are shaken from the tree when they are all ripen at the same time or if not they are hand picked.
In processing the coffee beans the first step is to separate them from the pulp and to remove the paper-like outer skin and the silvery inner skin that surround each bean. One method use is the pulp is separated by machine and the beans are allowed to ferment slightly.
Bean are then washed and dried, and the two skin layers are removed by milling.
Raw coffee beans are then packed in bags and shipped to market.
Coffee Bean Roasting
Raw coffee beans are then roasted. Roasting darkens the beans and develops their flavor and aroma. The amount of roasting affects the beans final flavor. Roasting is usually done in the region where the beans will be sold to suit the taste of the consumers there.
Coffee Bean Grinding
Grinding of coffee beans is usually done at the roasting plant, store at the time of purchase, or at home before brewing. The quality and fineness of the grind depends on the brewing method that will be used.
Kinds of Coffee:
Turkish coffee -is a very thick sweet coffee, it is made by bringing to a boil a mixture of water, sugar, and very fine ground coffee beans.
Espresso - is a strong coffee made by exposing ground, highly roasted coffee to steam.
Cappuccino - is an espresso coffee to which frothy cream or frothy milk has been added. Coffee sometimes flavored with chicory, cinnamon, vanilla, chocolate, almond, or other additives.
Special Type of Coffee
Decaffeinated Coffee (coffee with most of the caffeine removed) is usually produced by first softening green coffee beans with high-pressure steam and then extracting the caffeine with any various solvents. Coffee that is decaffeinated using water or other naturally occurring solvents is called naturally decaffeinated coffee. Other decaffeinated coffee is produced with synthetic solvents, such as methylene chloride.

Instant or Soluble Coffee is prepared by first brewing the coffee in very large quantities at a processing plant. Water is then removed from the coffee by evaporation or by freeze-drying. Instant coffee is sold as a fine powder or, in the case of freeze-dried coffee, as granules. The user simply adds hot water.

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